In 1983, the Environmental Policy and Planning Office was instructed to collaborate with the Department of Water Resources and the Royal Thai Survey Department to monitor the groundwater and land subsidence situation in Bangkok and surrounding areas because there were sign of land subsidence and the intrusion of saline water into the underground water sources caused by excessive use of groundwater in such areas. Subsequently, on 23 May 1995, the Cabinet passed a resolution to announce that 6 provinces, which were Bangkok, Nonthaburi, Samutprakan, Samutsakorn, Nakornpathom, and Pathumthani, were under groundwater and land subsidence crisis, then to be controlled areas. In order to alleviate the problems of land subsidence and the intrusion of saline water into the underground water sources, the Department of Water Resources was assigned to control and reduce groundwater consumption. The Bureau of the Budget was, then, instructed to expedite the budget allocation for Provincial Waterworks Authority ("PWA") and Metropolitance Waterworks Authority ("MWA") to expand their tap water services, using surface water resource, to cover all of the critical areas.
From the Government's policy, Thai Tap Water Supply Plc. ("the Company") was incorporated on 11 September 2000 to engage in the business of producing and distributing tap water to PWA in the 5 districts, which are Nakorn Chaisri, Sampran, and Phutthamonthon in Nakornpathom Province, and Kratoomban, and Muang Samutsakorn in Samutsakorn Province, under 30-year Water Purchase and Sale Agreement with PWA.
The Company produces and distributes tap water in Nakhon Pathom Province, and Samut Sakhon Province to the Provincial Waterworks Authority ("PWA") (Click for more information)
PTW is used for refering to "Pathum Thani Water Co., Ltd." - a subsidiary of the Company which the Company held 98% of the total shares (another 2% held by PWA) PTW has a 25-year Water Perchase Sales Agreement with PWA, started from 1998 (Click here for more detail)
|nameCustomers||Provincial Waterworks Authority (PWA)||Provincial Waterworks Authority (PWA)|
|Contract period||WPSA - 30 years (21 July 2004 to 20 July 2034)||
- WPDA 25 years (15 October 1998 to 14 October 2023)
- WPSA for the plant expansion 17 years (15 September 2006 to 14 October 2023)
|Type of the Contract||Build-Own-Operate ("BOO") - remain the ownership in productions and distributions system after the contract end.||Build-Own-Operate-Transfer ("BOOT") - Transfer the ownership in productions and distributions system to PWA after the contract end.|
- Nakhorn Chaisri, Sampran, and Buddha Monthon Districts in Nakhorn Pathom Province
- Mueng, and Kratoomban Districts in Samud Sakhorn Province
|all of Pathum Thani Province|
|Maximum capacity||320,000 cu.m. / day||388,000 cu.m. / day|
|Minimum Off-take Quantity (MOQ) PWA has to purchase (as of 1 Jan 2010)||300,000 cu.m. / day||320,000 cu.m. / day|
|Consession for operating tap water business||25 years (11 March 2005 to 10 March 2030) from the Ministry of Natural Resource and Environment||25 years (13 January 2000 to 12 January 2025) from the Ministry of Interia|
|Operation and Maintenance by||Thai Water Operations Co., Ltd. - the subsidiary of TTW and PTW||Thai Water Operations Co., Ltd. - the subsidiary of TTW and PTW|
According to the contracts, water tariff of TTW and PTW will be adjusted every January. The formula for calculating the new tariff are as follow:
|Pn+1||Water tariff as of 1 January in year n+1 , unit is cu.m. , count until decimal place 6th|
|Pn||Water tariff as of 1 January in year n , initial value on 31 December 1999 = 13.900000 Baht / Cu.m.|
|CPIn-1||Consumer Price Index of Central region, announced by the Bureau of Trade and Economic Indices, Department Of Business Economics, Ministry of Commerce, for December year n-1 , initial value on December 1998 = 128.1|
|CPIn||Consumer Price Index of Central region in December year n (*)|
|K||A constant factor for water tariff adjustment, which varies as follow:|
|year 1st to year 7th (2000 to 2006) = 1.03000|
|year 8th to year 10th (2007 to 2009) = 1.02500|
|year 11th to year 14th (2010 to 2014) = 1.01000|
|From year 15th (2015) onward = 1.00000|
|(*)||In case CPI of December in year n is not officially announced before the date of issue the bill for January of year n+1, the existing water tariff will be used until the official CPI is announced, then the difference will be calculated and paid in the next payment.|
|BWCi+1||Water tariff as of 1 January in year i+1|
|BWCi||Water tariff as of 1 January in year i|
|CPIi||General Consumer Price Index, announced by the Bureau of Trade and Economic Indices, Department Of Business Economics, Ministry of Commerce, of July of year i (start from year 1998)|
|CPIi-1||General Consumer Price Index, announced by the Bureau of Trade and Economic Indices, Department Of Business Economics, Ministry of Commerce, of July of year i-1|
The water tariff is used only when raw water quality is in normal condition according to the conditions states in the Salse-Purchase Agreement. In case the raw water quality does not comply with the written standard and it is not under the Company's responsibility, the Company could adjust the water tariff according to the higher cost of treating the low quality raw water.
K factor is a constant factor given in the WPSA of TTW. It is setup for helping TTW in the first few years of operation which incur high risks as there was economy crisis at the time.
1st year - 7th year (2000 - 2006) = 1.03000
8th year - 10th year (2007 - 2009) = 1.02500
11th year - 14th year (2010 - 2013) = 1.01000
Usually, CPI in Thailand grows averagely about 3-4 % each year. At the time of signing the contract of PTW, there was no sigh of economy crisis, more over, that time was the peak of the economic bubble before it bursed therefore, no one ever thought that CPI would go below zero. That's the reason PTW did not put K factor in its tariff adjustment formula.
TTW - Water sale volume under 300,000 cu.m./day tariff = 24.46 Baht/cu.m.
TTW - Water sale volume above 300,000 cu.m./day tariff = 9.78 Baht/cu.m.
PTW 10.99 Baht/cu.m.
(as of 1 Jan 10)
Major cost of production are as follow:
1% and 5% of total water production volume of TTW and PTW respectively
The chemical cost for water treatment would increase, however the WPSA has a clause states that if the raw water quality is lower than a standard set in the agreement, TTW could require PWA to compensate the cost of treating that low quality raw water.
No, because East Water's major business is delivering raw water from the government's reservoir to industrial estates, mainly in the Easthern part of Thailand.
Apart from PWA, the Company doesn't have direct competitor who has similar capability in the service areas. However, the competitors could be small scale tap water operators, such as local municipal, and villages which use underground water to supply people in their areas.
WPSA between the Company and PWA states clearly about annual water tariff adjustment. There are no other clause states any acceptional case that prevent the annual water tariff adjustment.
PWA is a state enterprise who is responsible for building and managing the waterworks affairs in Thailand, accepts 3 provinces - Bangkok, Nonthaburi, and Samud Prakarn. The responsibility includes exploring water resources, and supply raw water for tap water production.
PWA use one-price policy on its water tariff for the whole country of Thailand although the production cost in each areas are different. However, PWA classifies its customers into 3 catagories which are Household, Commercial, and Industrial, then set the water tariff in progressive rate for each type of customers. The water tariff per unit for each range of volume consumption will not be equal. The more total water volume comsumption will incure higher price per unit than less total water volume consumption.
PWA's current minimum water tariffs are as follow:
Household 10.20 Baht / cu.m.
Commercial 11.45 Baht / cu.m.
Industrial 12.50 Baht / cu.m.
Please visit PWA's website for more details http://www.pwa.co.th/service/tariff_rate.html
Click here for the list of Top 10 shareholders
Click here for the details of number of shares owned by the Directors and the Management
Using ground water incures the following cost:
1. Water well reserve 8.50 Baht / Cu.m.
2. Ground water using charge 8.50 Baht / Cu.m.
which in total is 17 Baht / cu.m., while PWA's minimum tap water tariff is 10.20 Baht / cu.m. for Household, 11.45 Baht / cu.m. for Commercial, and 12.50 Baht / cu.m. for Industrial.
Because the services of PWA is still not cover every part of Thailand.
No, because the Company received 8-year promotional tax-free privileges (2004 - 2012) from the Board of Investment (BOI) for production of treated water, therefore the dividend is paid from the net profit which is exemption from corporate income tax.